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Essay / Research Paper Abstract
A 5 page paper with an emphasis on Wyoming. The essay identifies some of the pests that may attack turfgrass and how they are usually controlled. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
5 pages (~225 words per page)
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grubs than certain types of fescue or Buffalograss (Panter, Koski and Hybner, 2002). Another factor is the mowing height, for instance, grass that is mowed to a height of less
than two inches will have "higher incidences of insect, disease, and weed problems" (Panter, Koski and Hybner, 2002, p. 12). Alkire (2001) defines turfgrass pests "as plant damaging disease, insects,
nematodes, weeds, mites, and invertebrates." To reduce the incidence of turfgrass pests and to minimize the damage, it is essential to have a management plan and this author recommends an
"Integrated Pest Management plan" (Alkire, 2001). Such a plan requires knowledge of the existing pests, ongoing monitoring, and when necessary, chemical controls (Alkire, 2001). This means the exact pest must
be identified and whatever chemical is used needs to be applied by a professional in this field (Alkire, 2001). One of the hardy groups of insects that affects turfgrass in
several states is the nematodes. There are several different varieties of this insect; they are described: "Plant parasitic nematodes are microscopic roundworms that feed exclusively on plant tissues" (Westerdahl et
al, 2003). They are parasites that can attach themselves to the roots of the grass (Westerdahl et al, 2003). These authors report that several different types of nematodes can exist
simultaneously in the turf (Westerdahl et al, 2003). Further, the signs or symptoms of nematodes may not even be visible above ground, which means they can do a lot of
damage before anyone knows it (Westerdahl et al, 2003). Above-ground signs of nematodes infestation include "patches of yellow plants, stunting, and poor growth" (Westerdahl et al, 2003). Below-ground signs include
a swelling on the plant roots, which are referred to as galls (Westerdahl et al, 2003). The roots may also be thicker and shorter when this insect is present (Westerdahl