Sample Essay on:
National Endowment for the Arts: NEA is our friend.

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Essay / Research Paper Abstract

This 10 page paper examines the past history of the NEA; controversial issues which have surrounded federal funding of the arts, including First Amendment issues clarified in 1998. Censorship outrage due to the work of Serrano and Maplethorpe is also discussed. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

Page Count:

10 pages (~225 words per page)

File: D0_BBnea2.doc

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Unformatted sample text from the term paper:

NEA IS OUR FRIEND Written by for the Paperstore, Inc., April 2000 Since its inception in 1965, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) has undergone yearly budget approval by Congress and congressional reauthorization every five years. In his first term as a United States senator, Jesse Helms (R- NC) took issue with funding decisions made by the NEA. That was 1972 and the work in question was Erica Jongs Fear of Flying. Seventeen years later, Helms played a key role in the pornography/censorship controversy that began with an outcry over the NEA funding of photographs by Robert Mapplethorpe and Andres Serrano. Despite his fairly constant criticisms, it wasnt until 1989 that Helms had any large-scale success. What took so long? Had something changed not only in the country at large but also in the art world itself that made it: finally vulnerable to Helms attacks? (Giuffre). Beginning in the late 1970s, art in general and photography in particular began using the image as a relevant element in making a socio-political statement. This photos pushed the imaginative envelope by examining the areas of homophobia, sexism, racism, and capitalist exploitation. Photographs as social statements blatantly pushed aesthetic boundaries. And people were even paying money - and big dollars at that - to see them.. The avant-garde artists of the 1970s and 80s courted controversy with works in which message often outweighed such traditional, or perceived concerns, as craftsmanship or beauty. Although artists from many different media contributed to the "culture wars", photography--perhaps because of its relationship to reality--played a pivotal role in touching off the ...

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