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Essay / Research Paper Abstract
A 9 page paper on earthquakes in which the writer explains their different classifications, the role of various seismic wave patterns & types, etc; Also discussed are causes, reasons for geographical distribution, and the effects of earthquakes at different proximities beginning with the meizoseismal area (most damaged region). A final section looks at some experimental and theoretical grounds for predicting earthquakes. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
9 pages (~225 words per page)
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Unformatted sample text from the term paper:
an earthquake, is caused by the passage of elastic waves through the Earths rocks. These seismic waves are normally produced when some form of stored energy, such as chemical or
gravitational energy is released suddenly. Of all the natural phenomena that man has witnessed, not many are ever capable of creating as much havoc and
chaos as earthquakes. Over the centuries, they have been responsible for millions of deaths and an incalculable amount of damage to property. Although earthquakes have been inspiration for
dread and superstitions since ancient times, little was ever actually understood about them until seismology emerged at the dawn of the twentieth century. Seismic waves
which are generated by an earthquake source are commonly classified into three main types. The first two, the P and the S waves, occur within the earth, while the
third, consisting of Love and Rayleigh waves, is propagated along its surface. The existence of such seismic waves was predicted in the nineteenth century and modern-day investigations have led
to us learning that there is a close correspondence between such theoretical calculations and seismographic measurements of the waves. The P (Primary) waves travel through
the Earths body with the greatest velocity. They are longitudinal waves that can be transmitted by both solid and liquid materials in the earths interior. With P waves,
the particles of the medium vibrate in a manner similar to sound waves, and the transmitting rocks are compressed and expanded. The other type of body wave, the S
(Secondary) wave, travels only through solid materials within the Earth. With S waves, the motion of the particles crosses the direction of travel and involves the shearing of the