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Essay / Research Paper Abstract
A 8 page description of water and the chemical properties that make it so unique. The author details the chemical structure
of water and how this structure determines its behavior in response to temperature and in response to other substances. A brief history on
temperature measurement with specifics of the distinction between the Fahrenheit scale, the Celsius scale, and the Kelvin scale is provided. The chemical process that occurs when "hard" water is subjected to boiling temperatures is illustrated with the use of chemical formulas. Bibliography
lists 6 sources.
8 pages (~225 words per page)
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Unformatted sample text from the term paper:
All life forms are dependent on water. The human body itself is predominantly composed of water. As basic as it is to our needs, water is quite
complex from a chemical standpoint. It is that chemical complexity, however, that makes water so critical from a biological standpoint. Molecularly water
is quite simplistic. One oxygen atom is covalently bound to two hydrogen atoms. The pair of shared electrons and two pairs of unshared electrons characterize the molecule make
the molecule a polar molecule, i.e. its electron density is unevenly distributed around the oxygen atom. The molecule is positively charged on the side with the hydrogen atoms and
negatively charged on the side with the oxygen atom. The two sides attract one another and draw the hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atom together into the hydrogen bonds.
This bond is interesting in that it determines many aspects of waters behavior. When subjected to freezing temperatures, for example, water molecules spread further apart and some of
the hydrogen bonds are released. This quality allows ice to float, a very interesting characteristic given that most often things that are in a solid state are denser than
when they are in a liquid state and more often sink than float. In extremely high temperatures (when compared to other
substances at least) both hydrogen bonds break and water takes a gaseous form. This occurs only at high temperatures because it takes so much energy to break the hydrogen
bonds. The fact that petroleum-based products and other substances that contain carbon and hydrogen float on top of water rather than distributing evenly into it is also atributable to